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275 Words


Peter Nahum | Professional Profile

General Preface
Author's Preface
Chief Abbreviations
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The Man
The Time
The Book and Its Structure
The Message
Additional Note
Rhetorical Questions

The Man
The Times
The Book
The Message

The Times and Peoples
The Man
The Message
The Book

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It was strongly fortified on every side, bidding defiance to every enemy; yet it was to be utterly destroyed as a punishment for the great wickedness of its inhabitants.Jonah had already uttered his message of warning, and Nahum was followed by Zephaniah, who also predicted (-15) the destruction of the city, predictions which were remarkably fulfilled (B.C.

Answered Contradictions in the Bible | Genesis Park

The emphasis of these ethical principles gives to the message of Nahum a unique significance for the present day and generation.

The relates God's Creation of the world and his Word to Israel. He reveals his undying love for his creation mankind through the promise of a Redeemer, in spite of man's sin and disobedience. There are a number of Messianic prophecies in Hebrew Scripture, among them Genesis 3:15, Deuteronomy 18:15-18, 2 Samuel 7:14-16, I Chronicles 17:12-14, Psalms 2, 22, and 110, Isaiah 7:14 and 52:13-53:12, Daniel 7:13-14 and 9:24-27, Micah 5:2, and Zechariah 9:9 and 12:10.

The Old Testament is Hebrew Scripture or , and is composed of the Law, the or Pentateuch, the Prophets or , and the Writings, the or Hagiographa. The division - and original order - of Hebrew Scripture was evident at the time of Jesus, who referred to "The Law of Moses and the Prophets and the Psalms (Luke 24:44)." The Old Testament was composed in Hebrew, except for the following written in Aramaic - Genesis 31:47, Jeremiah 10:11, Ezra 4:8-6:18 and 7:12-26, and nearly half of the Book of Daniel (2:4-7:28).

The writings of the Old Testament are preserved in three languages - Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, and are available in the following manuscripts: the Greek Septuagint from Alexandria; the Masoretic Hebrew text from Tiberias, Galilee; the newly discovered Dead Sea Scrolls of the Essenes; and the Aramaic Targums and Peshitta Bible. The differing traditions have led to the disparity found in the Old Testament canons among Christian religions.

The oldest surviving translation of Hebrew Scripture was the Greek Septuagint, which was undertaken in the third century BC in Egypt by Jewish scholars who had migrated there during the Diaspora. The Greek codices arranged the books in a division, a different way than Hebrew Scripture, by placing the Law of Moses first, then the Historical Books, then the Psalms and Wisdom Literature, and then the Prophets. The three major Christian religions follow the Greek pattern and will serve as the outline for this discussion.

The contains the five Books of Moses, also known as the Torah or Pentateuch. describes the creation of the world, our first parents Adam and Eve, the Flood, and God's Covenants with Noah, and the Patriarchs of Israel, Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. is the first announcement of the Redeemer. The historical pattern of covenant, fall, judgement, and redemption that begins in Genesis remains consistent throughout the Old Testament. records the history of Moses, the of God, the Ark of the Covenant, the Exodus from Egypt, and the Passover feast, which serves as a of the Exodus event. relates the laws pertaining to religious observance and proper conduct, such as to abstain from homosexuality (18:22), to help the poor (19:10), to love your neighbor (19:18), and to refrain from tattoos (19:28) or consult fortune tellers (19:31). is so named because of the census taken of the Israelites, and their wandering in the Sinai Desert for forty years because of their disobedience to the Lord God. repeats the Ten Commandments and religious laws, and predicts the consequences of Israelite behavior in the Promised Land.

The include Joshua, Judges, Ruth, Samuel, Kings, Chronicles, as well as the Books of the Restoration - Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther. records the entry of the Israelites into the Promised Land and the conquest of Canaan. describes the time when the Lord raised up Judges, such as Samson, to save his people, a time when there was no king in Israel. traces the ancestry of the Davidic dynasty. The Books of Samuel and Kings were made into two books each. In , the prophet Samuel anointed Saul, who failed as the first monarch because of his disobedience; the young shepherd David was faithful to the Lord and defeated Goliath. In , David united all twelve tribes and became King of all Israel; he brought the Ark of the Covenant to , which became the capital of the United Kingdom of Israel. begins with David's son King Solomon who built the first Temple of the Lord, which housed the Ark of the Covenant. Disobedience to the Mosaic Law led to the Divided Kingdom of Israel and Judah. records the preponderance of Kings who broke covenant with the Lord, and the subsequent capture of the Northern Kingdom by the Assyrians in 722 (or 721) BC, and the destruction of the Jerusalem Temple with the Babylonian Captivity in 586 BC. The two books of offer a sweeping view of history from Adam to the United Kingdom of Israel to the announcement of King Cyrus to allow the people to return to Jerusalem. The Restoration, the return of the Jewish people to Israel, continues through the eyes of two leaders: restored the Mosaic Law, while restored the twelve gates and the walls of Jerusalem. The Second Temple in Jerusalem was rebuilt during this time and completed in 516 BC. The Book of describes the Jewish heroine Esther and is the source of the Festival Purim.

The of Hebrew Scripture consists of , , , Ecclesiastes, and the Song of Songs.

The cried out over the moral breakdown of the Israelites and included the Major Prophets - , the Books of and Lamentations, , and ; and the Prophets of the Book of the Twelve, which include Hosea, Joel, , Obadiah, , , Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, and Malachi.

Commissioned by Pope Damasus, St. Jerome translated both the Old and New Testaments into Latin, the New Testament in 384 and the Old Testament by 405. St. Jerome translated from both Greek and Hebrew manuscripts of the Old Testament and noted the difference between the larger canon of the Greek Septuagint and the shorter Hebrew canon, and called those books comprising the difference the "hidden or secret books" or the Apocrypha. To support the traditional use of the Greek Septuagint as the source of the Christian Old Testament, St. Augustine and the Synod of Carthage in 397 AD preserved seven books of the Apocrypha in the Old Testament Canon, known as the books: the Books of (Tobit), , and , as well as the Greek parts of which include the name of God, and which includes the Prayer of the Three Young Men, the saga of Susanna, and Bel and the Dragon. St. Jerome included these for a total of 46 Books in his Latin Old Testament. The Latin Vulgate Bible served as the standard Bible for Western civilization for over 1000 years.

The Hebrew canon for Judaism developed through the ages, and recognized 10 books less than the Greek Septuagint. The Masoretic Text of Tiberias, Galilee developed from the eighth through tenth century AD reflected the traditional canon of Hebrew Scripture.

In summary, modern Christianity reflects the lack of uniformity found in the canon of the Old Testament, for Catholics and Eastern Orthodox continue to refer to the Greek Septuagint as Old Testament while Protestants chose the Masoretic Hebrew text. See the of the Old Testament for a more complete discussion.

Davidson, "the distress of Nineveh referred to were the final one, the descriptions of the prophecy would acquire a reality and naturalness which they otherwise want, and the general characteristics of Hebrew prophecy would be more truly conserved." There seems to be good reason, therefore, for assigning Nahum's activity to a date between 610 and 607 B.C.


The culmination of English translations of the Bible

Ezekiel Daniel Hosea-Joel Amos-Obadiah Jonah-Micah Nahum-Habakkuk Zephaniah-Haggai Zachariah-Malachi Matthew Mark Luke-Acts John Romans 1 & 2 Corinthians Galatians Eph & Philippians Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians Pastorals/Philemon Hebrews James 1 and 2 Peter 1, 2, 3 John, Jude Revelation


Opinions concerning the religious significance of the Book of Nahum may differ, but from the stand-point of language and style all students assign to Nahum an exalted place among the prophet-poets of the ancient Hebrews; for all are impressed with the intense force and picturesqueness of his language and style.

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The Holy Bible: King James Version


Until recently no doubts were expressed concerning the integrity of the book, but within recent years scholars have, with growing unanimity, denied the originality of (Hebrew 2:3), with the exception of 2:1, which is considered the beginning of Nahum's utterances.

Tekton Education and Apologetics Ministries, James …

Smith, "while it is possible that a later poem has been prefixed to the genuine prophecies of Nahum, and the first chapter supplies many provocations to belief in such a theory, this has not been proved, and the able essays of proof have much against them.

Buber, Martin | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Nahum's Glee over the Ruin of Nineveh:

The fierceness of Nahum, and his glee at the thought of Nineveh's ruin, may not be in accord with the injunction, "Love thine enemy"; but it should be borne in mind that it is not personal hatred that prompts the prophet; he is stirred by a righteous indignation over the outrages committed by Assyria.

Early Jewish Writings: Old Testament, Apocrypha, Dead …

Universality of Yahweh's Rule:

While Nahum's message, in its direct teaching, appears to be less spiritual and ethical than that of his predecessors, it sets in a clear light Yahweh's sway over the whole universe, and emphasizes the duty of nations as well as of individuals to own His sway and obey His will.

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